Both your tracking pixel as your trackable URLs collect the following data:
Based on the IP-address and the user-agent collected by the tracking pixel, some other visualizations are made. Using the IP-address we determine and visualize the location (read more about it: How accurate is the location data?). Using the user-agent we determine what device, software and operating system the tracked entity is using. In the article What is a user-agent? you can learn more about this.
By adding custom data to the pixel or tracking URLs you can collect other kinds of data. What kind of data that is, is up to you. Learn more about custom data: Adding custom data to tracking pixels.
Premium users are able to export all collected data to CSV-files. Read How can I export my tracked data? on how to do so.